MONITORING & PROTECTION & INVESTIGATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY PROFESSIONAL SCIENTISTS
CONSERVATION PROJECT OF THE HARPY EAGLE SPECIES - Harpia harpyja
Monitoring and protecting of one active nest of a couple of harpy eagles - Harpia harpyja
During the 80´s and 90´s we confirmed regular visits by a female harpy eagle to the close surroundings of our visitors centre, so we set-up to find that harpy couple´s nest, search that granted a positive result after 12 years of searching through our guide Ilke "Yuqui", locating it not too far from our visitors centre, being a fully active nesting site which obviously became a "star" activity to our guests and which can be visited by all of them under controled guidance and following certain "rules to the game"; this harpy eagle couple has granted us various nesting seasons, each one resulting in a healthy and strong harpy youngster, which after thorough teaching and atention by its parents has flown off to search for its own future.
CONSERVATION PROJECT OF THE TWO OTTER SPECIES - OTTERS UP! - Lontra longicaudis & Pteronura brasiliensis
Monitoring and protecting various social groups of both species of neo-tropical amazonian otters - Lontra longicaudis & Pteronura brasiliensis
Conservation, monitoring and investigative research in the Javari valley - comprising the main Javari river and its mayour tributaries - of the two species of amazonian riverine otters (Lontra longicaudis & Pteronura brasiliensis) also through involvement of the local neighbouring community villagers applying new related scientific knowledge for achieving this goal.
CONSERVATION PROJECT OF THE MANATEE SPECIES - Trichechus inunguis
Monitoring and protecting of the amazonian manatee - Trichechus inunguis
Conservation, monitoring and investigative research in the Javari valley - comprising the main Javari river and its mayour tributaries - of the the amazonian manatee/ sea cow (Trichechus inunguis) also through involvement of the local neighbouring community villagers applying new related scientific knowledge for achieving this goal.
CONSERVATION OF THE ROSE-WOOD TREE SPECIES -Aniba rosea
Growing & re-planting of the rose wood tree - Aniba rosea
Conservation, multiplication and spreading/re-forestation of the hard-wood tree "Rose wood" (Aniba rosea) by growing large numbers of young trees obtained from seeds from some, very few adult trees located inside the Reserva Natural Palmari (maybe being some of the very few remaining in the overall neo-tropical world!) and confirmed by the specialized hard-wood botanist Dr Pablo Palacios, then to be planted in other regions in the Javari valley and hopefully all over the neo-tropical rain forests where this tree species has been extinguished due to its felling for obtaining the rose-wood oil for the perfume industry during the early 19th. century.
1st. record for BRAZIL at the Reserva Natural Palmari of Steatornis caripensis - Oilbird - Only published in english
STEATORNITIDAE 1st. record for BRAZIL at the Reserva Natural Palmari Steatornis caripensis Guacharo (spanish) Oilbird (english) Fettschwalm (deutsch) By Andrew Whittaker & Robin Henry Schiele Zabala & Axel Henry Antoine-Feill S. 21st. of May, 1.998 The Oilbird (Steatornitidae) confirmed for Brazil from a specimen from the most unexpected locality the Amazonian lowlands. By Andrew Whittaker & Axel H. Antoine-Feill S. & Robin Henry Schiele Zabala
The Oilbird, (Steatornis caripensis) is a rather unusual New World Caprimulgiform and being unique as the only nocturnal frugivore in the World. Steatornis caripensis occurs locally in mountains of northern Venezuela and in the Andes from western Venezuela to western Bolivia; also Tepuis of southern Venezuela, eastern Colombia, Guyana and Trinidad; wanders also to Panama, ridgely and Greenfield (2001).
Steatornis caripensis is a gregarious species occurring in colonies´ occupying large dark caves which are used as daytime roosts and for breeding. The species is most famous for its use of echolocation clicks enabling it to perfectly navigate and breed in these pitch-black caves. This echolocation behavior is shared with Bats (Chiroptera) but also with two less well known bird species from SE Asia, Aerodramus Swiftlets, demonstrating an amazing example of convergent evolution from the Old world to the New world. These Swiftlets are also locally found in dark caves where immense colonies of sometimes millions can be found using echolocation to navigate in the pitchblack environment. Steatornis caripensis depart from the caves at dusk to fly long distances to forage gregariously for fruit, apparently locating aromatic fruit by smell and nonaromatic fruits such as palms by sight Snow (1962).
Recent genetic analysis of caprimulgiforms indicates that Steatornis caripensis was the earliest to branch away from all lineages, Brumfield et al (1997) with its closest affinities thought to be with Nyctibiidae, (Potoos) and Caprimulgidae, (Nightjars). The distinct rufous plumage and bold white spotting of Steatornis caripensis causes it to bare a striking resemblance to the smaller rufous Potoo, (Nyctibius bracteatus). Nyctibius bracteatus is however a true insectivore, inhabiting the Amazonian lowland rainforests of Brazil, eastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, northwestern Bolivia and Guyana, Ridgely and Greenfield (2001).
On the 21st. of May 1998 at the Reserva Natural Palmari Lodge, Rio Javarí, Amazonas 4º17´17 S 70º17´33 W the freshly dead remains of an Oilbird were found by A. Antoine-Feill and R. Schiele along a forest trail through virgin "terra firme" forest. The carcass remains suggested that it had been very recently predated. Feather samples were collected and five feathers were deposited in the Institute Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia, INPA 447 as material evidence for this the first confirmed Brazilian Record. AW made a direct comparison of these Palmari feathers with two Venezuelan Steatornis caripensis specimens at the Museu Emílio Goeldi in Belém. MPEG 33147-48 from the Rio Paragua, Sierra Urutari, Bolivar. Confirming beyond doubt that the feathers did belong to Steatornis caripensis and referred to a primary, two secondaries, one rectricie and a mantle feather. However due to such few feather specimens it did not allow for a fair detailed comparison to be made with the highland birds from Venezuela.
Following the discovery at the Reserva Natural Palmari of the Steatornis caripensis, communication with local riberinhos (riverside people) revealed that they not only new of the presence locally of Steatornis caripensis, they also describing the bird´s plumage, its habits and their unusual characteristic screaming calls. Further more they informed of how Steatornis caripensis are sometimes killed on river cliffs or from within hollow trees as they roost by day, later being used as torches by the community at night, as they burn well for long periods. Historically Steatornis caripensis nestlings have been collected by indigenous peoples and cooked to extract a clear odorless oil that was used mostly for cooking, or in some localities for lamp, oil del Hoyo et al (1999).
From adjacent Peru D. Graham (pers comm..) reports a recent observation of a lone Steatornis caripensis. At 21:00 h on 1st. of January 2002 at Paucarillo Forest Reserve, Loreto 3º41.28 S 72º11.19 W along the Rio Orosa where DG and eight other ornithologists observed at close quarters a flying Steatornis caripensis. The bird was observed in flight using a strong spotlight and became disoriented, where upon it flew towards the light and started to emit strong clicking sounds while it briefly flew in tight circles. The bird remained flying in the light beam 10-15 m above the riverbank for about 45 sec before flying off strongly out of site. This Amazonian Peru locality is some 225 km WNW from the Palmari location and on the south bank of the Amazon.
Sick (1984) was the first to report on the possibility of Steatornis caripensis penetrating into Brazilian territory from active Steatornis caripensis caves he located in 1970 in southern Venezuela close to the Brazilian frontier. Later during the mid 1980´s several large Steatornis caripensis colonies were discovered in the Venezuelan state of Bolivar on the Brazilian boarder in the state of Roraima, including a huge colony at Aguapira contained as many as 10.000 birds. Sick (1993) included Steatornis caripensis as occurring in northern Brazil in Roraima for the following reason. The Cerro Urutaní has contained an active Steatornis caripensis colony in the Urutaní caves at 1300 m since 1978, whose end is 228 m away in Brazilian territory, Dickerman and Phelps Jr (1982). In fact there are no true sight or specimen records prior to ours confirming Steatornis caripensis occurring in Brazil. However it seams very reasonable to assume that it was only a matter of time before Steatornis caripensis would be confirmed from northern Brazil most probably from the Highlands of Roraima. We feel confident to state nobody would ever have expected Steatornis caripensis to be first confirmed from the lowlands of western Amazonian Brazil!
These two recent Amazonian lowland records from Brazil and Peru of Steatornis caripensis from May and January (well separated months) combined with the comments of the local riverside community around Reserva Natural Palmari strongly suggest that this occurrence from the lowlands of Steatornis caripensis may well not be quite as unique as was at first expected.
The nearest known breeding colony to the Reserva Natural Palmari in Colombia is about 600 km in direct flight NNW to caves in the Colombian tablelands, of Vaupés (Olivares 1964, Hilty and Brown 1986). Colonies in Peru T. Schulenberg (Pers. Comm..) are mostly all from Andean foothills 800-900 km away, however a recent site record from Tahuayo 08º10 S 74º02´W some 600 km away is the closest record bringing Steatornis caripensis east across the Ucayali River. Roca (1994) using radio telemetry in Venezuela on ten Steatornis caripensis recorded to move 240 km in one night to another roosting cave, proving the theory that Steatornis caripensis can cover long distances quickly.
We suggest further ornithological fieldwork should be carried out in western Amazonian Brazil and adjacent Loreto Peru aimed at trying to locate Steatornis caripensis and to confirm its status. Clarifying the status of Steatornis caripensis in this lowland region will revile if these two records do in fact involve as yet an unknown lowland-breeding colony. If a breeding population does exist however we strongly recommend that new material (both specimens and tissue samples) should be collected and a through comparison of this material (both skins and DNA analysis) should be made with the highland birds. We feel this would be extremely important to evaluate to see if these lowland forms may possibly, represent a different sub species or possibly even a new taxa.
Aknowlegments- We would like to thank T.S. Schulenberg and Devon Graham for sharing their knowledge and unpublished data on Steatornis caripensis . Our sincere thanks go to María L. Videira at the Museum Emílio Goeldi, Belém for allowing AW to visit and examine the Steatornis caripensis specimens in their collection. AW would like to thank the wonderful hospitality provided to him from the staff at the Reserva Natural Palmari Lodge during his stay.
References- Brumfield R.T., D.L. Swofford, and M.J. Braun, 1997. Evolutionary relationships among the Potoos (Nyctibiidae) based on isozymes. Ornithological Monograph No 48. Pp 129-145. Del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol 5 Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Pp 250. Dickerman, R.W., and W.H. Phelps, Jr. 1982. An annotated list of the birds of Cerro Urutaní, on the boarder of Estado Bolivar, Venezuela and Territoria Roraima, Brazil. American Museum Novitates, No 2732, pp 1-20. Hilty, S.L., and W.L. Brown. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton Univ., Princeton, New Jersey. Olivares, A. 1964. Adiciones a las aves de la Comisaría del Vaupés (Colombia), II Caldasia 9: Pp 379-393. Roca, R.L. 1994. Oilbirds of Venezuela: Ecology and conservation. Nuttall Ornithological Club 24, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Pp. 83. Ridgely, R.S., and P.J. Greenfield. 2001. The Birds of Ecuador. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New York. Sick, H. 1993. Birds in Brazil: A natural history. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Snow, D.W. 1962. Natural history of the Oilbird Steatornis caripensis in Trinidad W.I.II. Population, breeding, ecology and food. Zoologica 47: 199-221.
- Conjunto Acariqara, Rua Samaumas 214, Manaus 69085-410, Amazonas, Brazil. E-mail:
- Reserva Natural Palmari, Carrera 10 # 93-72 "Palmari" Building, Bogotá D. C., Colombia. E-Mail:
SOUNDS: While flying in a cave makes very loud cries, grehh, producing a deafening sound when many call together, as they always do. Flying outside of caves, gives a guttural karr-karr. In depths of caves where there is absolute darkness, emits a high kli … (frequencies reach 12 kHz) that serves for echolocation, corresponding to our sonar. This kind of acoustic orientation occurs in insectivorous bats (e.g., Saccopteryx bilineata of central Brazil) and certain swifts (Aerodramus = Collocalia) of the Indo-Pacific region. The auditory nuclei of S. caripensis are the largest known, perhaps because of echolocation, and are similar to those of Collocalia (Cobb 1968). The Steatornis syrinx is illustrated in Van Tyne and Berger (1959). Bat sonar is much more efficient than that of oilbirds, permitting the capture of insects in flight.
Feeding: This is the only frugivorous, nocturnal bird. Feeds on fruits of various forest trees (e.g., Lauraceae) and of palms, flying 50 or more Km to find a meal, orienting itself by sight and probably also by smell. Tears off fruits with bill while hovering. Swallows them whole, regurgitating pits later in caves where it spends day.
Breeding: Colonies established only in deep caves, e.g., 650 m in from entrance of famous Oilbird Cave near Caripe, Venezuela, from where Humboldt described species in 1817 (fig, 135) (and where I made my observations). Roosts and builds nest on rock outcroppings 30-40 m up near roof of cavern. Regurgitated pits serve as nesting material, being glued to substrate with birds´own excrement. Female lays 2-4 eggs which are incubated by pair for approximately 33 days. Development of young is very slow, taking 4 months. During this period nestlings accumulate an incredible amount of fat, becoming much heavier than parents, but they thin down before flying. Local resident kill young to extract a valuable oil (hence the name “oilbird”). Distribution: Guyana and Venezuela (also Trinidad) to Roraima (Brazil), Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Panama at altitudes of 7-3500 m. In Venezuela many oilbird colonies are known. Since 1978 I have been receiving information from Venezuelan speleologists on oilbird colonies on the Venezuela/Brazil border, such as in the Urutaní caves, whose entrances are in Venezuelan territory at an altitude of 1300 m but whose end is 228 m away in Brazilian territory.
Anonymous. 1977. Catastro Espeológico Nacional. Bol. Soc. Ven. Espel. 8(16):199-231. Bosque, C. 1986. Actualización de la distribución del Guácharo, Steatornis caripensis en Venezuela. Bol. Soc. Ven. Espel. 22:1-10. Cobb, S. 1968. on the size of the auditory nuclei in some Apodiformes and Caprimulgiformes. Auk 85:132-33. Griffin, D.R. 1953. Acoustic orientation in the Oil Bird, Steatornis caripensis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 39(8):884-93. Humboldt. A. von. 1817. Mémoire sur le Guacharo de la caverne de Caripe. Recueil d´Obs. de Zool. E d´Anatomie no. 2. Pye, J.D. 1985. Echolocation. In B. Campbell and E. Lack, eds., A Dictionary of Birds. Vermillion, S.D.: Harrell Books. Snow, D.W. 1961. The natural history of the Oilbird, Steatornis caripensis in Trinidad. Zoologica (N.Y.) 46:21-48 and 47:199-221. Stolzmann, J. 1880. Observations sur le Steatornis péruvien. Bull. Soc. France 5 :198-204.
THESIS, ESSAYS AND OTHER RESEARCH PROJECTS UNDERTAKEN BY UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGE STUDENTS AS WELL AS OTHER PRIVATE, NONE-PROFESSIONAL RESEARCHERS
University/college pre-graduation thesis "Usage of a plot of Costus arabicus heliconia bushes by the hummingbird community in the Reserva Natural Palmari" by Tatiana Samper Restrepo - In spanish language, only
Universidad de los Andes Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas
Director: Carlos Arturo Mejía & Co-director: Orlando Martínez
University/college pre-graduation thesis "Natural history and ecology of the relationsship Triplaris (Polygonaceae) - Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in the Reserva Natural Palmarí" by Andres Zambrano - In spanish language, only
Universidad de los Andes Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas
Directores : Santiago Madriñan, Ph. D Carlos Arturo Mejía, M. Sc
University/college pre-graduation thesis "Improvement possibilities considered specifically under eco-touristic aspects regarding the Reserva Natural Palmari tourism destination in the brazilian neo-tropical rain forest" by Ute Baier - In german language, only
Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig - Holstein Berufsakademie Fachrichtung Betriebswirtschaft Schwerpunkt Tourismus
Gutachter der Berufsakademie: Kai Ingo Menke zum Felde, M.A.
Gutachter des Betriebs: Torsten Krempin
University/college graduation thesis "Description of the hemi-epiphytical growth of the Monstera sp. plant in the Reserva Natural Palmari" by Boris Villareal - In spanish language, only
Universidad de los Andes Facultad de Ciencias Departamento de Biología
Tesis de Grado Director: Santiago Madriñán Ph.D. Laboratorio Botánica & Sistemática. / Universidad de los Andes.
Co-Director: Orlando Martínez Ph.D. Instituto Genética Poblaciones / Universidad de los Andes
University/college graduation monography by Victoria Andrea Ortegon León - In spanish language, only
Universidad de los Andes Facultad de Ciencias
Private ecological study "Small ecological study, survey and inventory of an area of terra firme forest in vicinity of the Moura creek" by Dominic Mole Rowland & Richard Rich Braham & Alexander Wilko Wilkins & Joshua Sky Walker & Peter Mouse Richards & Lany Arevalo - In english language, only
OUR NON-GOVERNMENTAL & NON-PROFFIT SUPPORT AND FUNDING ORGANIZATION
Instituto de Desenvolvimento Socioambiental do Vale do Javari
Taking into account the complex policies and presence of authorities always interested in a proper handling inside the brazilian law as to any participative organization related to the local colonist communities, we have searched for alternatives that allow us to act directly in these neighbouring villages towards aspects of live quality improvement based on a sustainable management of the surrounding environment, but in an autonomous and sepparated manner from the Reserva Natural Palmari, which allows us to enhance the portfolio of real possibilities and the including of other interested parties; based on said premises we created the idea, designed the policies and internal procedure protocols, located other interested parties on an international level, coughed-up a viable administrative organigramme in accordance to the reality of the region, decided the immediate and secondary priorities and gave life to the Instituto de Desenvolvimento Socioambiental do Vale do Javari (www.idsavj.org) following the rules of brazilian law as to the conditions surrounding an “NGO”, in Brazil appropriately named “OCIP – Organização da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público = Civil societie´s organization of public interest". This institute – with the funding coming from each and every guest visiting the Reserva Natural Palmari , plus the funding donated by various multi-national firms related to it, plus the fundings from tour & excursion & tourism operating agencies and their clients visiting the Reserva Natural Palmari, plus the direct in situ support of visitors that donate their holliday time helping to push forward any communal proyect and many other of ut-most diverse inspirations – has created to the present date a participative bond with 5 local communities, which now thrive with new and fully equipped schools, aqueducts, septic waste-water treatment services, bridges and other acomplished proyects regarding communal infrastructure, apart from receiving donations such as cloths, books, shoes, torches and other domestic utensils. Further, we search for new proyects, new attitudes and new routines looking to change the daily modus vivendi for the colonists in these associated villages, all based hopefully on simple ideas as the one´s expressed in our proposal “Proyecto: Educación + Donación = Compromiso » Cambio 180°” (http://www.palmari.org/vcd/es_ES/180/index.htm) and which indistinctively will guide the communities to live comfortable, rich lives with real possibilities towards a promising future based on a practical platform that will result in a healthy, ecologically protected way, its forests and water bodies used on a sustainable and economically viable scenario without nature loss and presenting us a sound surrounding environment.
Leo = Colocar aqui el logo del IDSAVJ y debajo una hilera de fotos pequeñas de las obras efectuadas por el IDSAVJ más fotos de comunidades